Over the past month I have been exploring the various historical roots that created what we might call “evangelical worship” today, including German Pietism, American Revival, the Wesleys, American Democracy and Camp Meetings, and Charles Finney. Today, I’d like to look at one reaction to some of these developments, that I would suggest also had somewhat of an impact on how evangelical worship developed.
In England, as evangelical revivalism similar to that of America spread, a strong Anglo-Catholic contingent within the Anglican Church opposed what they considered to be the extreme emotionalism of the evangelical revivals but also sought to correct what they considered stagnation in the Church of England.
Come to be known as the “Oxford Movement,” due to its beginnings at Oxford University, theologians such as John Keble (1792–1866), John Henry Newman (1801–1890), John Mason Neale (1818–1866), and Frederich Faber (1814–1863) sought to forge a middle way between Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism. The movement had such a significant effect upon Anglicanism that many late medieval Roman Catholic practices were reintroduced into worship, including emphasis on weekly celebration of the eucharist, vestments, observation of the church year, and other liturgical rituals. Sacramental theology likewise shifted to stress Christ’s real presence in the eucharist and the necessity of confession to a priest. The movement also impacted the Episcopal Church in the United States.
Musically, the Oxford Movement produced three primary contributions. First, they encouraged translations of Latin, Greek, and German hymns into English. Neale produced several important translations of Latin hymns, such as “O Come, O Come, Emmanuel,” “Let All Mortal Flesh Keep Silence,” and “Of the Father’s Love Begotten.” Second, they composed original hymns such as “Sun of My Soul” (John Keble), “Crown Him with Many Crowns” (Matthew Bridges), and “Faith of our Fathers” (Frederick Faber). Finally, in 1860–1861 they published Hymns Ancient and Modern, one of the most significant and influential hymnals of the century, and organ and choral music flourished as well.
It is this latter contribution that had some positive, restraining influence on the growing evangelical worship movement. The publication of Hymns Ancient and Modern helped to both preserve traditional hymnody while at the same time encouraging the best of the Victorian and revival hymns. Many of the “standard” traditional hymns still sung in many evangelical churches today became “standard” due to the influence of HAM.